The Rise and Fall of Elizabeth Holmes

Updated: Jul 08, 2016 5:17 PM UTC

Companies rise and fall all the time in America, almost as a hallmark of capitalism. But perhaps none has ever completed that cycle with the dizzying speed of Theranos, a Silicon Valley company that had promised to revolutionize the $50 billion blood-testing industry.

Theranos was founded in 2003 by Elizabeth Holmes, a Stanford dropout who managed to raise hundreds of millions of dollars in private funding without anyone in the media catching on for the next decade. In 2013, The Wall Street Journal reported that Theranos had developed blood analysis machines that could “automate and miniaturize more than 1,000 laboratory tests” in a manner that would “require only microscopic blood volumes.” It also revealed that the company had struck up a partnership with Walgreens (wba), which would launch a network of in-store blood collection clinics. The following summer, Fortune put Holmes on its cover, revealing that private investors had valued her company at more than $9 billion.

From that moment on, Holmes was a bonafide business celebrity. And she embraced it, giving countless interviews and appearing on stage at numerous conferences―often in a black turtleneck seemingly designed to evoke memories of Steve Jobs.

Then, just 16 months after the Fortune cover, it all began to collapse. The Wall Street Journal returned its attention to Theranos, reporting that the company wasn't using its own blood analysis machines to do many of its tests, and that there were accuracy concerns over the tests that were done on its machines. That story sparked a series of articles in the WSJ and elsewhere—including an unprecedented mea culpa from Fortune—and regulatory actions that caused many in Silicon Valley to conclude that Theranos was expert at marketing but lousy at science. Executives began to leave. The board, initially heavy on ex-politicos like Henry Kissinger and George Schultz, was reworked. And then reworked again. Walgreens bailed.

Last November, Holmes addressed the scrutiny at Fortune's Global Forum with Alan Murray, which you can see here:

Finally this week, Theranos announced that federal regulators had banned Holmes from owning or operating a medical laboratory for at least two years, and that Theranos could no longer continue operating its California lab. Holmes, who has been promising to finally reveal compelling, peer-reviewed science at a medical conference next month, pledged to rebuild the California lab "from the ground up" but it's unclear how she will finance such an endeavor.

Save for a miracle, this business story seems to have reached its final chapter. See the rest of its chapters below for our comprehensive coverage:

Theranos CEO Elizabeth Holmes Banned From Operating a Lab

Congress Is Demanding Theranos Explain How It's Going to Fix Itself

Walgreens Is Officially Cutting Ties With Theranos

Theranos CEO Elizabeth Holmes Did Not Just Lose $4.5 Billion

After the Theranos Mess, Can We Finally Quit Idolizing Entrepreneurs?

Walgreens Reportedly Struck Theranos Deal Without Verifying the Tech

Theranos Is Now Facing a Class Action Lawsuit Accusing It of Consumer Fraud

Theranos CEO Elizabeth Holmes Needs An Assist. Literally.

Theranos Has Thrown Out Two Years of Blood-Test Results

Theranos's President and COO Is Leaving

Theranos Under Investigation by SEC and U.S. Attorney's Office

Theranos Chief Elizabeth Holmes Is 'Devastated' Over Lab Deficiencies

Theranos Founder Elizabeth Holmes Is Facing a Ban by Regulators

Tesla and Theranos Are Pushing the Limits of Silicon Valley’s Hype Machine

Theranos Adds Startlingly Well-Qualified Medical Board

Theranos on the Ropes as Scathing Regulatory Report Is Made Public

Theranos Is Dealt Another Blow, With 'Abnormal' Results in New Lab Study

Clinton Campaign Distances Itself From Controversial Blood-Testing Startup Theranos

Chelsea Clinton Is Holding a Fundraiser With the Embattled Theranos CEO

Theranos May Have Run Blood Tests Despite Problems With Quality

Walgreens Is Reportedly Taking Steps to Dump Theranos

Theranos May Lose Its Biggest Blood-Testing Customer

Theranos Has Yet to Begin a Promised Validation Study

Walgreens Gives Theranos Another Drop of Bad News

Theranos Practices 'Pose Immediate Jeopardy to Patient Safety,' Government Says

Theranos Is Facing Yet Another Problem at One of Its Labs

How Theranos Technology Struggled to Meet Elizabeth Holmes' Ambitions

Letter to the Editor: Theranos Responds

How Theranos Misled Me

A Theranos Deal With Safeway Stores May be Falling Apart

Theranos' Elizabeth Holmes Says the Company Will "absolutely" Get FDA Approval

The Theranos Mess: A Timeline

Theranos Founder-CEO Elizabeth Holmes: Feminist Icon?

Theranos Restructures Board Amid Questions About Its Technology

Theranos May Be Seeking to Raise $200 Million in New Funding

Here's What the FDA Found Inside Theranos' Lab

Walgreens Halts Expansion of Theranos Centers

Five Things to Know About the Man Defending Theranos

Theranos CEO Hits Back in Blood Feud With Wall Street Journal

Another Tale of Theranos Patient Woe

Ex-Apple Exec Describes First-Hand Experience Using Theranos Technology

Are the Wall Street Journal's Allegations About Theranos True?

Theranos Controversy Has Little to Do With 'Unicorns'

Theranos' Board: Plenty of Political Connections, Little Relevant Expertise

WSJ Report: Theranos Is Struggling With Its Blood Test Technology

Beyond Blood: Theranos' Billionaire Founder Talks Growth

This CEO Is Out for Blood

Stay tuned to Fortune for continuing coverage of the Theranos drama.