Here’s How Much Lower Manhattan Has Changed Since the 9/11 Attacks

15 years later, New York has bounced back.
September 9, 2016, 4:56 PM UTC
3 World Trade Center Topping Out Ceremony
The 9/11 Memorial is seen from 3 World Trade Center (WTC) after the topping out ceremony in New York, U.S., on Thursday, June 23, 2016. The last bucket of concrete for the 80-story skyscraper was signed by Larry Silverstein and other dignitaries then lifted 1,079 feet to the top of 3 WTC. The tower is being constructed utilizing an innovative core-first method in which the concrete core is completed first, followed by the perimeter steel, which will reach the top later this year. Photographer: Michael Nagle/Bloomberg via Getty Images
Michael Nagle — Bloomberg via Getty Images

Here’s How Much Lower Manhattan Has Changed Since the 9/11 Attacks

15 years later, New York has bounced back.

Lower Manhattan’s population has more than doubled and the number of children living there has tripled since just before the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks hit the financial district, a report on the neighborhood’s rebirth showed.

Employment growth in the area has equaled one in 10 of Manhattan’s private sector jobs, with a more diverse economy that is growing faster than the city-wide average, according to the report from New York State Comptroller Thomas DiNapoli on Tuesday.

“It would have been impossible, in the midst of the unspeakable tragedy suffered 15 years ago, to imagine Lower Manhattan as we know it today,” DiNapoli said in a statement.

Use the sliders below to see how much has changed.

LEFT: Lower Manhattan on September 15, 2001. Smoke is seen rising at the site of the World Trade Center. RIGHT: Satellite image of lower Manhattan on May 4, 2013.

The Sept. 11 attacks killed almost 3,000 people—more than 2,700 in Lower Manhattan alone and leveled the World Trade Center towers.

In the years that followed, city, state and federal officials gave grants and other financial incentives for businesses and residents to rebuild.

LEFT: People run down Fulton street from the collapse of one of the twin towers of New York’s World Trade Center on Sept. 11, 2001. RIGHT: The same view in 2016.

Yet the process has been far from smooth. Political fighting and other hurdles stalled construction on the new World Trade Center site and memorial.

A transportation hub, designed by renowned Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava and maligned by some as a “boondoggle,” finally opened this spring at a cost of $4 billion, nearly twice its original estimate.

LEFT: An Aerial View Shows Ground Zero Of The World Trade Center Disaster Area September 22, 2001. RIGHT: The 9/11 Memorial can be seen from the 90th story of One World Trade Center on April 30, 2012.

The character of the area has changed in the years since the attacks, becoming more residential as older office buildings were converted to housing and new residential towers were built, DiNapoli said.

The population rose to 49,000 in 2014 from 22,700 in 2000, the report showed, while the population of New York City as a whole grew just 4.3 percent over that period.

LEFT: Rescue workers sift through debris at the scene of what was once the plaza area of the World Trade Center twin towers, September 24, 2001. RIGHT: Patrons visit the pools at The 9/11 Memorial near the World Trade Center in New York on May 15, 2014.

The mix of employers has also changed. In 2000, finance jobs made up 56 percent of the area’s economy. In 2014, that portion had dropped to 34 percent, while business services, leisure and hospitality and personal services such as dry cleaners grew.

With the rebound have come new problems. The area cannot build schools fast enough, its sidewalks are glutted with garbage and its streets with tourist buses, and it needs to make its infrastructure more resilient to climate change, said Manhattan Borough President Gale Brewer.

LEFT: The view from the Brooklyn Bridge in 2001. RIGHT: The same view in 2016.

Critics panned the now-expired Liberty Bond program, which gave developers access to tax-exempt financing, some say at the expense of ordinary New Yorkers.

Goldman Sachs Group Inc. (GS) got nearly $1.7 billion of the bonds to build a tower downtown, and Bank of America (BAC) used the program to construct a new building in Midtown, not Lower Manhattan.

9/11 jobs-in-lower-manhattan

More from Fortune on 9/11:

What the World’s Biggest Leaders Learned on 9/11

What Ex-Fed Governor Roger Ferguson Learned on 9/11

The Tombstone at Ground Zero

New York Landmark’s Storied Past

Rebuilding Wall Street

September 11: A survivor’s tale

4 lessons Delta’s CEO learned from 9/11