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Can digital cash survive contact with its enemies?

October 14, 2020, 2:41 PM UTC

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The past few weeks have sparked a wave of worry that, as Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies grow, national governments and regulators will not allow them to function as digital cash. As crypto lawyer Jake Chervinsky gauged the mood this week, “governments are getting more concerned about both illicit activity and the threat to their monetary sovereignty” stemming from cryptocurrency.

One piece of evidence for that was last month’s surprisingly harsh action against the essentially unregulated cryptocurrency exchange BitMEX, whose founders now face not just civil but also criminal money laundering charges in the United States. But BitMEX and its CEO, Arthur Hayes, have been openly taunting regulators for years, practically begging to be made an example of.

More systemic worries have focused on the possibility of tightening regulations around the world, particularly concerning how cryptocurrency moves on and off exchanges. There is specific concern that the international Financial Action Task Force (FATF) will recommend what’s known as ‘whitelisting’ to global regulators.

Whitelisting rules would require that exchanges only allow users to withdraw cryptocurrency to wallets linked to their identity, in essentially the same way banks require thorough identity confirmation for all accounts. Whitelisting is already enforced in Switzerland, somewhat ironically. By Chervinsky’s reading, the rule “practically prohibits [cryptocurrency] self-custody in the guise of verifying the owner of a private key.”

If true, that would mean whitelisting rules could undermine the overriding promise of cryptocurrency as privacy- and freedom-preserving digital cash.

As argued by public blockchain lobbying group CoinCenter, human autonomy, privacy, and freedom will not survive the increasingly digital 21st century without some form of digital cash. That means a monetary bearer instrument that can be transferred digitally without an intermediary such as a bank or processor. PayPal, credit card payments, and bank transfers are all at risk of interference or monitoring, but the decentralized and pseudonymous nature of blockchain-based digital currency makes crypto transactions impossible to block or shut down, and provides some limited privacy protections.

These protections serve a variety of positive social purposes, whether you’re trying to circumvent an authoritarian regime or just pay for entirely legal stuff like sex toys without getting your account closed. Physical cash has similar advantages, but is onerous to use for the long-distance transactions that increasingly dominate the contemporary economy.

However, CoinCenter itself believes those concerns are somewhat overblown. In August, the nonprofit argued that whitelisting would only apply to withdrawals directly from exchanges, leaving crypto’s cash features intact for peer-to-peer transactions. And at any rate, CoinCenter says its conversations with regulators and lawmakers suggest a whitelisting rule is “nowhere on the horizon” in the U.S.

That should be reassuring not just because it suggests some regulatory recognition of the value of digital cash, but because regulators are resisting the urge to make crypto an easy target when they have vastly bigger fish to fry. As highlighted yet again by last month’s leak of FinCEN suspicious activity reports, the world’s most dangerous criminals don’t use crypto to launder money: they use banks with respectable-sounding names like HSBC and BNY Mellon.

Bank money laundering is as we speak ripping global society apart. It gives savvy criminals and corrupt leaders access to tools that let them loot and pillage without consequence, and at a scale that is quite literally hard to comprehend: the FinCEN reporting found $2 trillion worth of suspicious activity at banks between 1999 and 2017.

By contrast, one analysis found that crypto exchanges were used to launder $2.8 billion in criminal funds in 2019. That means crypto exchanges would have to operate in their current, Wild West state for three hundred and fifty-seven years to do as much damage as the banks already have.


Finally, we have a question for our readers. This week saw Square announced the acquisition of $50 million in Bitcoin, which appeared to be headed for the company’s long-term treasury, rather than for use with the Cash App. That followed tech firm MicroStrategy converting $425 million of its treasury to Bitcoin.

So here’s the question for you: What major firm will buy Bitcoin next – and why?

Send your one or two sentence thoughts to We may feature your comments, name, and/or title in future editions of the Ledger.

David Z. Morris




The IMF and G20 will establish global digital currency regulatory standards ... Greenwood, a new digital bank founded by rapper Killer Mike, opens to a surge of interest ... Zinken testnet a major step towards Ethereum 2.0 ... Nubank is revolutionizing banking in Brazil ... Asset manager Stone Ridge adds $125m in BTC to its holdings ... Ethereum interface Metamask adds in-app token swaps ... Tim Draper leads $5 million series A for Indian crypto exchange Unocoin.


Goldman Sachs says a Biden win would mean a weaker dollar ... With Square and Venmo, ease of use can mean ease of fraud ... Bombings threatened in Japan unless blackmail is paid in Bitcoin ... Every crypto is DeFi now ... The Trump Department of Justice and other Western legal agencies want a backdoor on encryption ... Bitcoin may not have intrinsic value, says guy who runs England's money.


After the hack, Kirby tried to do what he does best - make a meme out of it. They came up with the #HalfRekt meme ... Maybe this would’ve been a popular meme with the community if YFI was still going up in price but at this point YFI was dropping like a rock and many people who bought in at the highs were most certainly not only #HalfRekt - they were #FullRekt.

Part of a rundown of the strange story of DeFi evangelist "Blue Kirby," from Anthony Sassano's Daily Gwei newsletter. "Blue Kirby" was a pseudonymous Twitter account that in a few months was able to build bullish pronouncements about Yearn Finance and other DeFi projects into an online presence strong enough to clear more than a million dollars selling YFI tokens, collectible "NFTs," and a sketchy pseudo-DeFi project of their own. Then, as DeFi crashed ... Blue Kirby disappeared.

As CoinDesk points out, the legacy of Satoshi has made nameless founders and leaders more attractive in crypto than any other sector, but that doesn't mean they're actually trustworthy.


$611 million

The amount JPMorgan set aside for bad loans in its most recent quarterly report. That number is dramatically lower than an expected $2.4 billion in so-called loan loss provisions this quarter, far lower than it was in previous quarters of COVID uncertainty ... and even lower than the same quarter in 2019. But as Bloomberg’s Brian Chappatta points out, lower expected default rates aren't necessarily proof that the economy is out of the woods.


Coinbase lost 5% of employees over 'no politics' policy - Jeff John Roberts

Former Commerce Secretary Penny Pritzker on the post-election economy - Robert Hackett

G7 Bankers set to block Facebook's Libra - Jeff John Roberts

Lufax IPO shows Chinese fintechs aren't fazed by U.S. tensions - Naomi Xu Elegant

Ford Foundation uses novel bonds to fund $180 million in racial justice grants - Ellen McGirt

Why Square went on a $50 million Bitcoin buying spree - Jeff John Roberts

How to use frequent flyer miles ... even if you're not flying - Rachel King


For the love of all that is holy, do not click it.

This edition of The Ledger was curated by David Z. Morris. Contact him at