Skip to Content

U.S. Consumers Aren’t As Excited As Investors on Self-Driving Cars, Study Says

Google's self-driving carGoogle's self-driving car
A self-driving car by Google seen at the Google I/O developer conference in Mountain View, California, USA, 18 May 2016. Photo by: Andrej Sokolow/picture-alliance/dpa/AP ImagesAndrej Sokolow — picture-alliance/dpa/AP

U.S. consumers still resist the notion of self-driving cars, according to a University of Michigan study released on Monday, the latest sign that investors and automakers may be rushing into a business where demand is limited at best.

General Motors’s recent acquisition of Silicon Valley startup Cruise Automation for a reported $1 billion has accelerated a stampede by other automakers, suppliers, and venture capital firms looking to invest in or acquire new companies developing self-driving technology.

Consumers, meanwhile, remain concerned about aspects of self-driving technology and “overwhelmingly” still want the ability to manually control a self-driving vehicle, the study said.

Get Data Sheet, Fortune’s daily technology newsletter.

“The most frequent preference for vehicle automation continues to be for no self-driving capability,” said the study’s authors, Brandon Schoettle and Michael Sivak.

The survey results are consistent with those in a similar survey that the university conducted a year ago and generally mirror the findings in a study that the American Automobile Association released in March. The AAA report found that three out of four respondents were “afraid” to ride in a self-driving car.

The latest University of Michigan survey found 46% of respondents preferred no self-driving, followed by partial self-driving (39%) and complete self-driving (15%).

Nearly 95% of respondents said they wanted to have a steering wheel plus gas and brake pedals so they could take control of a self-driving vehicle when desired, the study found.

For more about where Uber is testing self-driving cars, watch:

Traditional automakers and suppliers have embarked on a gradual phase-in of self-driving technologies, from automatically regulating speed and braking to keeping the vehicle from drifting out of its traffic lane.

Electric car maker Tesla Motors has gone a step further with its Autopilot system, which gives owners the option of limited self-driving on the highway.

Technology companies led by Alphabet’s Google favor an “all-in” approach, with its latest prototypes designed to drive automatically without steering wheel or pedals.