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In 1971, Bangladesh won a brutal war for independence, and some 10 million refugees returned to a country in urgent need of rebuilding. In stepped Abed, a former corporate executive who established the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, now the world’s largest nongovernmental organization. BRAC’s fingerprint includes microfinance; its program has given out $1.6 billion in loans to more than 5 million ­Bangladeshis—and education, where it has graduated over 11 million students.