I want to thank our panelists so much for joining us. Um this passion passion of the fortune of Power for the, for the fortune of California community. I'm Emma Hinchliffe, associate editor, Your fortune and today we're diving into the state of the workforce and keeping it well during the covid crisis, there's a lot of conversation about if when and how workplaces will reopen. But according to a recent addition, Deloitte, 76% of companies are still in the respond and recover phase of the crisis. So that makes the opening a tough prospect. So what are the best ways to tackle the challenges of both work from home and reopening and how are we addressing the physical and mental well being of our employees will tackle those issues with our discussion leaders here today, we're joined by wanda Bryant Pope, chief diversity and inclusion officer at johnson, johnson dr Karen desalvo. Chief health officer at Google Health, dr Vivian lee President, Health platforms for verily life sciences and Kristie taylor. President and Ceo for enterprise Holdings and being Michelle Williams. Being a faculty at the Harvard T H chan School of Public Health. Thank you all for joining us. Great condition. Yes, before we get going, before reminder that these sanctions are intended to be interactive. So please ask your questions in the chat function on the right of your screen and we will actually turn off audio and video and ask our panelists question directly at any point throughout the session. So I'd love to get started with a question for current um carry the one of them one of these companies that has really had a problem for other businesses in terms of making decisions about when the pro data that has been video really how to operate as a one business. Okay. How has the company made those decisions and what have we have all been inviting the model companies to decide when to close the mentally open? Well, Emma, we've really relied on the best available science at the time as well as um the guidance of authoritative bodies, whether that's at a global level like the World Health Organization or in country specific locations, um the ministries of health or in the U. S. Context, the CBC to assimilate that information into some guidelines and recommendations. We decided very early to go to work from home. We had already had a bit of a push from our offices in china and other parts of Asia that had because of government expectations closed. So we were learning some things about frankly the fact that we could work from home and so as much as we were able to do that to contribute to the flattening of the curb and now keeping it flat by staying home, we wanted to be good citizens of the world in that way and do that without interrupting business continuity. So it was based on evidence based on some rapid learning that we were getting from other context and then wanting to really lean in to leave because we knew that we probably could work from home with business continuity, not being an issue. And and we thought that that was not, it's not only important for safety of our of our employees, but of course is set to be a part of the citizenry of the world. And do we could to help with the shelter in place in California, went pretty early to shelter in place. That we even even decided to go before that um Michelle 100 been in the world of higher education and institution. That has maybe help fairly and help other series in the higher education field to exhibition their own safety of their own faculty students. How is Harvard made those decisions, keeping in mind the specific needs of the community that involves a student population and what has your role been in helping Harvard company? Fantastic. That's a great question, Emma, I would say, you know, early on when our faculty understood that we were facing a novel um virus, the first thing that we did was try to position the school, but also our community members to appreciate that we had to be in a position of being prepared to respond to a novel virus. And this meant being sure that we effectively communicated what we knew, what we knew knew at the time. And you know, every day we've learned something new about the transmission pattern, the the immune response to infections and so on. So we rapidly expanded our internal and external communications capacity. Our faculty members join every work group uh that required public health expertise in planning um for response. And um a lot of our laboratory based scientists um were deployed um really all of their supplies resources to addressing the needs in our in our public health laboratories as well as our hospitals in the laboratory. So we were engaged in immediate response that required supplies to be brought PPE S to be brought to places where they were needed the most and our thought leaders and our experts were engaged in task force that planned response. So planning a thoughtful, careful block shutdown of our facilities and within a week of closing our facilities, we are already looking at scenarios for what we would have to do to be positioned to reopen safely in a phased way that complied with state and local government. On the external relations side, our faculty or students who are involved in community based engaged research and the practice of public health were embedded in teams outside of the academic states who were also planning and preparing for their own response. And for example, um the academic year before uh covid um really became a problem. We were already creating public health academic home where public health students and faculty engage in practice partnered with state and local government um to engage in the practice of public health. And so we had teams of students who were instantly deployed to engage in building contact tracing and other support work that needed to be done in response uh to the to the pandemic. One last thing, we have had a very vibrant collaboration with the private sector and a culture of health um collaboration that we've been running for years. And so even our corporate partners who were members of our culture of health were tapping into the expertise that exists within the university as response crisis communication and response plans were developed. Thank you so much for that Michelle. Can you all hear me going? Okay, great. Um dr lee how has your company uh responded to Covid? And what about your work has changed? How are you now studying this virus compared to what you were doing several months ago? Um Thanks for that question. Them. And I just want to say I was having this sort of ah ha moment when I said, oh, it's so wonderful to be on a panel with all women. I'm really enjoying this. So thank you. Um so barely we got pulled in very early into the covid pandemic. Um for those of you who don't know, we are a part of the alphabet family. So Karen and I are part of the same organization versus cousin organizations. Um, and early on we were called upon first by the folks in uh in the state of California and then actually at the federal level to step up and help with the covid pandemic. And we had some tools that had already been built for clinical trials across platform that essentially in just a few days was repurposed to become um a covid screening kind of tool to enable people to um go through the cBc questions. You know, you have a fever, have you traveled to gauge their risk of having covid? And then we discovered after doing that that really the critical need was in last testament. Covid testing. Just really such um limited capacity for that in such a huge news. So our team in South san Francisco in very short order stood up these covid testing sites working very closely with the public health authorities, um, starting in California and then we put together a playbook and shared that with communities all over the country. Um, partnered a little bit with Rite Aid as well Um, to offer community-based testing. So that was one large effort that we've undertaken and I think we've 12 about a million smart in the last week or so a million tests that we've helped to support. And then after we started doing that, we were contacted by a number of employers and also universities. Um, it's the point that the Williams was made and um, we have seen there's so many questions that people have in the case of where they have essential workers or they need to come back and work for universities, thinking about how to bring their students and faculty and staff campus. So, um there again, we have been trying to help out and modified our tools with the symptom checking capability and the ability to uh, stand up lab testing to create a program that we called healthy at work or healthiest school that enables employers or university administrators to offer their employees or their students and staff the ability to check their symptoms to schedule tests to either work in our testing facility who are in their own student health services on health. I just want to, for example, get those results back, um, and really help them manage their workplace. And probably the most important piece of that work has been the efforts on the part of our data scientists, because one of the big questions that everyone has is how do we manage all this uncertainty and all this change that everybody has alluded to? We really still don't have clarity on what our future is going to look like and for people who are bringing people bringing their employees back to work, especially I'd say university administrators, they want to know, have I set aside enough housing, for example, for quarantine in the event of an outbreak? How do I, how can I be assured that I'm not going to have to close cool down and send everybody? Um, and so we're using our data scientists in partnership with epidemiologists, including at Harvard and and elsewhere, um help the modeling in order to provide recommendations um based on their environment that their workplaces are in the community that there's a hot covid fight versus it's relatively most. And to give them some guidance that may be how often people who are asymptomatic might need to get that data science I think is driving, starting a lot of decisions. So those are the two main areas that we've been working on, a Covid. And then lastly, very briefly, of course we have digital health solutions where we've been working with patients who have chronic conditions like diabetes and hypertension and there's a very patient, very people who've been concerned about music clinics and hospitals and so the digital tools that we've already had in place before, Covid have become ever more important to also telehealth and chad and video conference with clinicians. Yeah, thank you so much for that Vivian. Um, I want to turn to wanda for a moment, but first before I want to make sure everyone knows a reminder that our conversation is presented in partnership with johnson and johnson, so thank you so much for partnering with us to make this event possible. So wanda, this discussion is about employee wellness and we've been talking so far mostly about physical health and about Covid, but I'd like to broaden out that discussion a little bit and talk about some other ways. Companies should be thinking about employee wellness um, from your purview. Um, as chief diversity officer, J and J. How does the conversation about racial justice fit into this broader discussion as a wellness issue for their for employees? And what should businesses and leaders do to make sure employees are there supporting employees when it when it comes to that specific issue? Yeah. So thank you all for having us. And J and J is proud and happy to mark heroin on this particular program. And I know we've got a lot of partnerships even here on the panel that we work very closely with. Um, and so yes. Um, I think you're absolutely correct that while we are in the midst of the pandemic around covid 19, uh there was a worldwide recognition of another pandemic and and that was the pandemic. And as we talk about how we support our employees, we know that it's critical that we are supporting our whole employees, right? So it's physical health. And we've heard several of our panelists talk about sort of what companies and organizations are doing there, but it's also critically important that we support mental health and emotional health and well being as well. And so first let me let me share a little of what J. And J. Has been doing uh you know, sort of starting with 19 situations. And and that was, you know, certainly providing flexibility for people to be able to see there's insects and their families, uh the flexibility to be able to first in different ways as well as as A majority of our workforce, about 75% went, uh, most pretty graphic. Uh, and then we provided lots of people are gonna be sources, um, like, uh, tools around mental wellness. We've done different things like, uh, opportunities for people to have conversations by these training around the kinds of things that we should be doing to take care of ourselves, creating opportunities for people to even exercise together remotely or on classes to keep up sort of that, both that principle and that mental health. And then as we got into the summer months, you know, really the pandemic of racism became front and center around the world and particularly here in the US and, and that, um, provided a different type of stress who are employed. So there we knew that it was important that not only we can do with all of the support that we were doing for COVID-19, but that we also hope to support our organization and our employees in a different way. And in that we quickly organized to um say that we were going to stand up and try to do our best to impact social and racial injustice and make a difference. And then from an internal standpoint, we provided former Foreign Talk which provided training um around sort of what systemic inequity really is and how it came about that there was an understanding uh, and that people could enter into a learning journey to better understand it, to be able to take action, appropriate action, make sustainable change moving forward. Um, and and you know, and again, we we recognize that we have that to take care of themselves from, from a mental wellness standpoint. We've even done things like given the over the course of the last couple of months, just recognizing the amount of express that was on employees from both covid 19, uh, and from under the understanding of racism. So those are some. Thank you, thank you so much for that one to chrissy. So you're in a very unique review on this panel as a leader of a company that has stayed open throughout the pandemic and had to keep a largely on the ground workforce safe over the past several months. What measures did you put in place at the beginning of the pandemic? And how does that compare to where you are now? Yeah, Great. Thank you. Thank you everyone on the panel. It's really great to be here. So yeah, we're smack dab dab in the travel industry with our rental car brands and the last six months have been the most challenging in our history and as an essential um as an essential company And providing transportation to utility companies to government workers to um you know health care professionals. We need to help keep them moving and so immediately in April and may um with our just our 6500 locations in North America, we needed a plan and we needed to react very very quickly. A couple of high level things that we did with our footprint was just too big with too much foot traffic and demand had come way down. And so at our low point we had about 30% of our network open so that we could keep customers and employees safe. Today we have almost 100% of our global network open because we're taking safety measures such as math, social distancing, cleaning, the protocol, new protocols of cleaning our vehicles and our branches which are locations and also our shuttle buses. So um and then also in april and may everything went outside and so that curbside just like you get your dinner and you pick it up. We moved rental car outside. But their complications to that because you qualify and we have procedures because we're giving you a you're renting a $25,000 vehicle. And so we also needed to use technology because the services we're providing today, I think that will be the new customer expectation going forward which is the customer wants control. They want low touch or contact with. They also want personalization. So we know when they come in we can have their you know name and address and phone number and email and all of that ready to go. And so this challenge actually provided an opportunity for us to further our technology and our rental programs and systems to fast forward what the customer is already asking for two today. And so um we want to make sure that during this time, yes, we had to react very quickly, but today and moving forward we're thinking about the customer expectations, making it safe and also innovating for the future because we all, all of our businesses are going to be in it for the long haul. And so it's really hard not to think just right here in the moment. We have to think about the future because a lot of these things are going to stick, they're going to be in the future. And I saw this question in the chat about how do you prepare today for a second wave? So in april and may, we did all of these operational changes. We are ready for whatever the fall has to come and I believe will be better because our employees understand that expectation. Um, and so we will be ready for that. It won't be perfect. But we will be ready for whatever comes or that second wave and we will be much better prepared. Yeah, sorry. I'm just when I just so excited about what you've shared because, you know, as as someone who's in the academic space, one of the things I experienced with my faculty in the last seven months was just how interconnected public health and business is now and what you just described is the essential need that we have to bring these two entities together so that we can do the messaging around what are the steps and the approaches taken to assure the health and wellness and safety of the consumer as well as the workforce. And it's so consistent with what we've experienced in public health since. Covid that the silos that separate our sectors are breaking apart and we're coming together in a collaborative way where we're infusing the business plan with public health principles and best practices and I think that is going to be our future where we work together collaboratively across sectors, um, in ways that promote health and safety, but also is good for business and reopening the country's economy. Yeah, Yeah. Michelle, I think that if I can just add on to that, I think that's so critical because Christie what you explain Michelle was saying. I think it's exactly what our workforce has been asking for as well. Right? So for years we've been trying to figure out, I think as a sort of corporate America, how do we create more flexibility? We see a future generation execute differently, wanting to connect differently, wanting to uh, live in different locations if they are offices are located in and while it doesn't always had great for the ingrate policies for our organization and our workforce, I think this is really forcing organizations to think really differently about how we support our workforce, how allegations that workforce, even how we fired talent and develop, because I think what will recognize you for so many ways that we can use technology and differently days and some of the constraints that I believe we have with England, right? And this situation has forced the first break through some of those constraints and I think that's going to make not only for a healthier workforce, both from a physical and mental standpoint, but I think it also opens the doors to topics that allows us to engage a workforce from all the different avenues than we ever have before, which is going to help us to drive innovation and uh, you know, to really continue to move. All I could think of when Christie was talking was how much people in, in the health care system want that kind of experience. We may step into the health care system and um, we, we've certainly learned uh, in, in thematically many of the things that were mentioned, one of which is about the importance of partnership and maybe we can get back to it. But for google as Michelle knows, we've been working a lot with public health, public health practice, public health, uh, in the academic environment all across the world, but also thinking about really more than the partnership, how we meet the meet people where they are, people come to us wanting information about their health. When I say us, I mean on Youtube or search or in map and we've been thinking about that experience for them and trying to help them navigate that health journey. Where can I get a covid test is going to become work and I get a covid vaccine and and that that kind of experience shouldn't only be for a pandemic. It should be always that, that it's easier to be to get the information you need to take the action that you need do that in a session that drives equity, eliminate disparities and really thinks about that user experience in the journey Christy. Thank you for giving us a glimpse into what we should be doing a lot better in health care. You should hold on to that we've been doing to telehealth and and other kinds of asynchronous healthcare experiences surely pandemics. Yeah, absolutely. And thank you all for this. You know, spontaneous discussion. I love it. Um and Christy, thank you for bringing up that question in the chat, which was from teddy Wilson. Um Karen, I'd love to hear your perspective on that question as well, about what businesses can do to plan for a potential second wave or even a future pandemics. Um So like that one strong willing, you will not be a after pandemic. However, you know, let me let me take this in a couple of directions teddy, I think one of them is um being all hazards prepared is what's really critical from a crisis standpoint for any institution, whether that's uh an employer or a government or the health care system, You want to make sure you're thinking about some of the tenants that are important in any context. Communication, um an appreciation of how you're going to put down things that are not as necessary, might call them things that are not P0 in the engineering world and and focus on the new crisis. How you create clarity and roles and responsibilities. Um pull in search capacity to address the new challenges that will arise and leverage data to make decisions so that that information is timely and in the decisions that you're able to make the policies that you lay out or evidence based as much as possible for you to sort of some of the snapshot of the basic infrastructure that that we all need, whether we're responding to covid or a wild fire or a hurricane or any kind of other outbreak. I think. I think one important point I want to make here though is we've had in our heads that there's going to be the second wave for the covid pandemic. A lot of that is predicated on the way that we've seen prior pandemics rollout globally, like the influential influenza pandemic And that particular 100 years ago the 1918 flu had a characteristic that caused the viruses shift and people to get to have a worse experience and the subsequent um transmission of the virus. This is a different kind of virus as we all know. It's the coronavirus and the way this virus behaving particularly in the U. S. Context, is it? Uh Epidemiologic curve is a spike and then a plateau even after it begins to drop and then another elevation and then a plateau. We're not having that um same pattern that we're seeing in some parts of asia for example. Or even in some some in europe. You see countries just adjacent to each other, they're epidemiologic curve might spike and then drop. But then others continue to have a plateau. So I want people to understand that this is, this is the point. This is we're not going to get a full breath. Um this virus. Um, she wants to keep coming at us with all her force. She wants us to do the things that Christie describes, the public health hygiene that we can control ourselves, masking, distancing, handwashing, staying home with your six, staying home as much as possible as a part of a bigger, the bigger strategies that public health and medicine and science will undertake. We're not going to get a little bit of a break. We've got to stay vigilant essentially. So we have the right countermeasures to really address the virus but we're learning in this process about the ways that we need to build search, capacity and infrastructure and communication and partnership to be ready for a new onslaught of this or anything else into the future if I may just add to that because over the last few months, the last six months Ceos have come with that same question to Academic and State Health Department and what we've been doing at Harvard chan is sharing our best practices on risk assessment, risk communication and preparedness and response protocols and what we're seeing is, Ceos from, you know, sectors that are in manufacturing all the way to banking and entertainment are now thinking differently about the kinds of skills and talents they need in the C suite and they are asking for more formal training in public health prevention preparedness response, risk communication and risk assessment and integrating that into their business plan. Because just as parents that this is not going to go away fast and we have to develop the language and the schools and the protocol uh to try to continue to engage in our business work And I just want to add to what England with what Michelle just said, which is, it's so imperative that we really start to move and mobilize and change our behaviors because our country can't really afford whole another round of this, even if it's not a second way, that's just a continuous escalation. The data that just came out from the CBO a couple of weeks ago showed that because of the downturn in our economy, the Medicare trust fund, which is the our taxpayer dollars to go and support Medicare care for our seniors Is actually now it was going to run out in 2026, it's now going to run out in 2024. So the financial impact of Covid are going to turn around and actually impact the health even more broadly of our country. And so it's just really imperative, really imperative that we get on top. Can I just add on to something that Michelle said and about, you know, what the c suite should look like? Who who are the stakeholders, what information and training do we need? I think one of the other stakeholders that we've been watching very carefully is our frontline workers because they are the vast majority of our overall population and if anything, still we continue to survey them. Which first I was like, are we sure we want to serve at them because we might not like what we get back, but we have we have to confirm that are you okay if you follow the policies and procedures that the company has put in place, Do you feel safe and the and you know, do you feel like you can be yourself at work from a diversity and inclusion perspective? And even though we are right in the middle of all of this, we felt it necessary to do a survey of all of our workforce about where are you and where is your engagement and that we just did it. And I know Emma, we talked about it the other day. I don't have all of the numbers back. Um but it is really important that I know in april he checked out our operations, we proactively did that. And if our employees don't feel safe and customers are not feeling safe and so we then need to take action because as you all said, we have a responsibility, We are in every local community that we're a role model in that community and those are really hard leadership decisions that every ceo every school, every you know, sector is going to have to make and that is one of the biggest challenges that, alright, but feedback is important that we and we've taken a similar, we've taken a similar approach at johnson and johnson where, um, you know, and I think you're right. You know, clearly as the world's most broad health care company, uh, we stayed open, right. We're going to have the ability to close, we have a sense of workers that are producing critical medicine um as well as taking on close to close at 19 vaccine and looking at our legacy and health care. Uh, we know that we have the, the skills, the skills and technology to actually create a scene in a six way and then probably the fastest way possible. And so in doing that, we had a lot of workers that still continue to have to work in our facility. And I think you're right, Christine, you have second right? And it's around making sure that people are taking care of themselves, making sure that they have the support and the resources, they not only to do their job at work, but to be able to as the essential workers that are taking on the load really for society to be able to care of themselves and they leave the workplace. So that's something we've been really focused on. We actually instituted um, an employee sentiment survey that we've been doing weekly since the March time, second on all of our employees around the world and understand how people were feeling, but they needed, kind of additional resources they needed and from that who uh, incorporated many different right? So the additional training, some additional resources on mental wellness, some additional resources on, you know, sort of physical wellness, uh tips and trips, tips and tricks that Christie was talking about. How do you continue to be inclusive the working remotely And you're used to be in a situation where your team is surrounding you now, you're all on calls like this when you're looking at a little tv box, like what kinds of things do you do to make sure that they engage and feel like they belong? So I do think it's really important that we think about all aspects our workforce as we figure out how we're going to continue to operate going forward because these permanent, permanent Yeah, thank you so much for that. Want to I want to go back briefly to something Michelle mentioned about your work helping C suite leaders learn more about health and public health. Are you finding that companies want their existing C suite leaders to educate themselves? There are companies looking to hire a chief health officer or a Chief public Health officer? Yeah. You know that's a great question, Emma and what I'll say from our engagement and from surveys with ceos of companies across all sectors, it's a combination of the two I think um there are, you know, companies that have chief medical officers have public health training and one of them is right here on, you know, our panel and she brings, you know, Karen brings a great wealth of knowledge and medicine, but also public and population health to that C suite. And I think that really add a lot of value uh to how business plans are developed in ways that are sustainable. And many of the topics that we've talked about, health and wellness and sustainability are, you know, part of the DNA of the business plan. But there are also companies that are now saying, you know, in in order to be prepared for continuing to develop and deepen relationships with government, public health agencies, state and local agencies in order to have that capacity to be nimble to respond to other pandemics or other threats, natural disasters, floods, and fires. We need to have the kinds of expertise that may be a public health trained individual can bring into the business plan and having that allows for creating resilience, supporting worker health wellness and well being and messaging safety, which is going to continue to be very high stakes for workers and um customers, clients as we've heard before. So I think it's a combination, I think, you know, it's a time where everyone is recognizing the primacy of public health prevention, wellness promotion, disease prevention and preparedness and response understanding there was a primary additional goals that we have to fake into our plan. I just want to add to what Michelle describing also about the public health um, focus for, for big companies can in addition to everything that she mentioned and I know you believe this Michelle, so I'm gonna, I'm gonna add it to what you said, which is uh, companies have also opportunity to serve as anchor institutions where they have local, where they have local offices to uh procure locally to work with local community organizations, to partner with local public health. So just as there is a global corporate and employee focus, there are real opportunities to address the social determinants of health, the upstream drivers of health by being again good citizens and partners at the local level. So it's another way that is using public health into the business model and the, and the planning of, of a big company can make a difference with health, for the health of the community, not just of the employees gallons. Karen. If companies are considering hiring for a role similar to yours or considering helping their existing leaders become more educated on these issues, what expertise should that person bring or and what can they learn on the job? Oh dear. Um Well I would uh the reason I said oh dear is because I would have never thought that I would be where I was in the middle of a pandemic. I have in my background as Michelle mentioned is in not only academic public health but the practice of public health and the practice of public health navigating a number of disasters. Um and the as well as the practice of medicine and it took all of the skills to be able to understand. Um you know the crisis piece probably in particular has been helpful because I understood the needs around risk, communication, battle rhythm, um, over communicating ideas and concepts. Thinking about balancing um risk and benefit for all the decisions that we make. These are things that you have to do every day in the practice of public health, especially almost more so than in Acadia and an academic background or even in the practice of medicine. But here's the thing, I think all these skills can be learned even in rapid succession. I think what's exciting about the way Google has thought about not only the pandemic, but it's thinking about its opportunity in the world is that it wants to infuse it, thinking of all the all the ways that that people's quality of life is affected and health is. But one of them, you write education and exposure to things like systemic racism. Economic opportunities are all ways that companies thinking of our opportunities to make a difference in quality of life for people in the world. So I I would say, um, to the way Michelle and then we're thinking about it, let's just start someplace purpose will be the enemy of the good. Um, the more that we can air with somebody who's got formal training as well as practical experience, I think would be great, but we're going to be on a learning journey as businesses began to incorporate this into. Uh yeah, thank you so much for that Vivian. I wanna make sure we turn to you for a moment. Um, you've written a lot about how the pandemic has exposed these faults in our health care system more broadly. What has it exposed about um healthcare access for workers and for employees in terms of um, both health consequences and access to health care? Yeah, it's really been, you know, it's been such a stretcher for for people in so many different ways and particularly the folks that have been the most vulnerable people who have chronic conditions um like diabetes, like hypertension, like heart conditions, cardiovascular conditions, and we know that they have been at greatest whisper for it and and disproportionately underrepresented minorities, disproportionate kind of health disparities have been really accentuated by the covid crisis. Um So I think this has been a time when we've within the health care system. You know, it's almost like Christie was saying, we're really thinking how enterprise can serve our customers. Healthcare really has to rethink how we're serving our patients. And it's as practical as how do we help people say um outside of having to come to the hospital or come to the clinic um and all the way to how do we think about just why do we have such significant health disparities in the country? You know, I was just talking to a colleague of mine um an old classmate of mindless, how who has really written about internal mortality and the huge discrepancies between african american women and and and hispanic and white women. And she's actually pointed out that really a lot of it is is racism, about half of them is probably racism related issues. And then half is just the quality of our hospitals. Um that the african american population tends to go to some hospitals that really are lower in quality. So at this point we really need to rethink what is the quality to care that we're delivering? How can we address some of these um issues around disparity and then how can you do it in a way that actually can meet people where they are, they don't have to come into the hospital necessarily for every condition. They can use individual solution, they can use the mental well being up there is wide, you know, widespread use of mental health apps and offering by employers, I think a very important time in the history of health care. Yeah, thank you so much. I think that I I think that's one of the things that have just that's just been um really critical for everybody to understand. And of course, you know, I think the pandemic highlighted things always been there, but we weren't really paying attention and and now that we see them as as leaders of industry and and and leaders in health, you know, we really have a responsibility to figure out how we reduce some of these inequity. And there's a variety of reasons, as Vivian was saying that they occur and I think we have to we have to partner together and collaborate to figure out how we tackle some of these things to create a healthier world all around. Thank you so much. You know we only have a couple minutes left so before we go I want to ask, you know July 2021 has been a very popular date in terms of a target for events being rescheduled and for some businesses for reopening. What do you think of that right now? Here in September Karen, if you want to take it well, you know, as it turns out to like 2021 is when he said um the end of June 2021 is how long will it work from home in the US. contacts um for our for our offices and and globally making that that voluntary opportunity available for employees. I think the scientific community has done an extraordinary job of being collaborative and advancing science in innovative ways that are meaning that they're expected deadlines around developing countermeasures, treatments and vaccines. I think we have some things to watch on the global stage about the um, whether those vaccines, for example, meet the safety and efficacy expectations after being through a three clinical trials and um, the regulatory bodies have had a chance to look at him. If all goes according to what people think, then we'll start having vaccines to roll out in the winter. And if we can make sufficient vaccines, uh, at the scale we're planning then certainly people in the US who want a vaccine will probably have had access by next summer. That is not a global statement because there's gonna be a lot of lower middle income countries that are still going to struggle to have vaccine until everyone's vaccinated. None of us are vaccinated. Um, there's a major equity issues. So I um, I think that's still a reasonable time to start thinking that we might be getting more back to normal. But I want people to get their head around the fact that all the way through 2021, we're going to have to be conscious in thinking about the fact that we're still basically working in a risk environment and going to have to continue some of the public health measures. Uh, that's my thinking. I'd love to hear though what others, how other people are thinking. We're actually pretty much out of time. So I'm so sorry. I would have loved to everyone as well. Yeah, but we can follow up on that later and thank you all so much for your time. More program content will be live at four p.m. On the main stage, and please remember to visit our sponsors in the expo tab. Well, they have giveaways, donations, special offerings and more. And you can see the agenda for the program in the reception tab.